The Encyclopedia of Applied Geology (Encyclopedia of Earth

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Partial replacement of silicate grains by carbonate cement can further enlarge the area of the cement. They could presumably form either in a shallow-water area protected in some manner from strong bottom currents and wave agitation or in a deeper-water environment. Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side ( strike-slip ) motion. For example, suppose ocean water is evaporating from an enclosed area, such as a bay, faster than water is flowing in from the open ocean.

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History of the Earth's Atmosphere

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Then, perhaps earning a degree in geology is a smart move. The properties of a magma (viscosity, melting point) are largely controlled by the SiO2 (viscosity) and the H2O content (melting point). Granite, basalt, and obsidian are examples of igneous rocks. For example, compositional maturity of Gondwana sandstones, from base to top of the group, increases progressively from immature to mature to submature to supermature. It takes thousands and millions of years for rocks to change.

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Paleomagnetic Principles and Practice (MODERN APPROACHES IN

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Most sediment accumulates on the bed of the sea, having been dumped there by rivers, or having accumulated as dead sea creatures fall to the seafloor. When water evaporates it leaves a layer of dissolved minerals behind. Petrol, 27, 3–26. estimated by using a hand lens or microscope and reference to a visual estimating chart such as that shown in Fig. 2.3 (see Jerram, 2001). Click here to see a simulated turbidity current reproduced in a laboratory. several different types that are common.

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The Age of the Earth

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Coral reefs are another good example of the interplay between chemical and biological processes. J".-u - s. t - “Mt— WiRL‘J‘g 3',.(-":I.“~'_;-,.: .',j' -';';i'»¥'i_:’.‘f‘:“wj‘\',. f: _ _‘ ,' ' ‘. .‘ ".4' R 73:31"; ‘ " ".'1; "I ‘ S 161) What type of current is illustrated in the diagram below? 162) Match the features on the illustration below with the correct answer for each one. Directional data must, therefore, be treated statistically to reveal primary and secondary paleocurrent trends.

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Carbonate Platform Slopes _ A Record of Changing Conditions:

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Nonetheless, biologic utilization of phosphate to build soft body tissue appears to provide the answer to the problem of phosphate concentration in sediments. Ribbon chert sequences must have been deposited initially as siliceous oozes or as turbidites composed mostly of siliceous organisms with various amounts of admixed clay. Minerals precipitated from sea water or lakes develop a network of interlocking crystals, or crystalline texture, similar to those found in igneous rocks but generally consisting of one dominant mineral.

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Biological Invasions Belowground: Earthworms as Invasive

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In some schemes of classification, biochemical sediments are treated as a sub-class of chemical sediments, but this leaves one with the awkward question of what to call chemical sediments which aren't biochemical. It may involve more than one mechanism, including repeated fracturing or some kind of geochemical self organization (e.g. Quartz mineral fragments are freed from the rock matrix, broken down and rounded to become sand, a significant component of sandstones, as well as a lesser component of mudrocks.

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The Sea Floor

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Another biochemical rock is chalk, the material used to write on a chalkboard. Fine clastics are commonly, but rather simplistically, referred to as mudrocks. Other minerals include feldspar, mica, and olivine, however excessive transport will usually remove these unstable minerals and concentrate the silica. Mathis, 1980, On the formation and occurrence of saddle dolomite: J. Possibly, both kinetics and Mg/Ca ratios influence the precipitation of abiotic carbonates. 9.8 Nonmarine carbonates 9.8.1 Introduction Because most carbonate rocks in the stratigraphic record are of marine origin, the preceding sections of this chapter have focused almost exclusively on marine limestones.

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Mud and Mudstones: Introduction and Overview

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This page intentionally left blank PETROLOGY OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS SECOND EDITION Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks is an advanced textbook describing the physical, chemical, and biologic properties of the major types of sedimentary rocks, as revealed by petrographic microscopy, geochemical techniques, and field study. The rocks which we have called clastic are sometimes called detrital. This kind of structurally and compositionally inhomogeneous dolomite is unstable to metastable, and it dissolves or alters much more readily than does more highly ordered dolomite.

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Micro-XRF Studies of Sediment Cores: Applications of a

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The Marcellus Shale is known to be deeper on the southeast edge of the formation that borders the ridge and valley regions of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia. It may contain silt-sized quartz grains. or an addition to an existing mineral. A change in the bulk composition of a rock by fluid transport of some chemical components into or out of the rock. 10. Saccani, 1989, Heavy mineral distribution in Late Quaternary sediments of the southern Aegean Sea: Implications for provenance and sediment dispersal in sedimentary basins at active margins: J.

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Physics of Sedimentology

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The δ18O isotope composition of meteoric waters can range widely from about +5 to −30‰ (Faure and Mensing, 2005, p. 700). Coal, almost pure carbon, contains an average of 6% Hydrogen, making it a low grade fuel. Igneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals. Clearly, the amount of CO2 dissolved in seawater affects the pH of the water. Immature - The sediment at the beginning. The origin of the fracture is evident, for the plumose hackles converge to the point of origin.

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